Traceable 3D metrology for manufacturing reliable high aspect ratio TSV interconnects: Reference materials, calibrated standards and measurements will be made available to overcome the current lack of traceable measurement tools and methods for reliability assessment of TSV based 3D integration technology and to extend this technology to the large-scale manufacturing of mainstream consumer applications and emerging 3D-SIC nanoelectronic devices. Measurement techniques and methods for controlling wafers/dies bonding and thinning processes: This will lead to the development of high lateral and z resolution wafer to wafer alignment control before and after bonding as well as the characterisation of the bonding quality of wafers and dies. Most of the measurement techniques, procedures and methodologies developed will be validated including establishing uncertainty budgets so that high accuracy will be achieved and traceability ensured. In-line metrology process control for 3D integration technology : Industrial standard artefacts will be certified and tested to be traceable to the International System; this is a critical requirement in order to ensure reliable and transferable calibrations for semiconductor fabrication plants. Good practice guides will then be available for providing recommendations to standardisation bodies as well as for the semiconductor industry. Infrared camera system available at NPL with high vacuum system.