Biomass Combustion Emissions Measurement

The aim of this work package is to evaluate and validate measurement methods for the characterisation of emissions from wood and non-wood biomass combustion for a wide range of pollutants, including PM, OGC, SVOCs; PAHs as well as CO2 emissions.

This will be done through the production of protocol documents providing method for the measurement of SVOC, OGC, PAH and PM from domestic biomass boilers (Task 2.1). An on-line, real-time, instrumental technique validated for apportioning CO2 emissions from co-firing power stations between biomass and fossil fuels (Task 2.2) will also be developed as will hyperspectral detection techniques for the standoff detection of biomass emissions (Task 2.3).

Task 2.1: Measurement methods for the characterisation of PM and organic compounds emissions from domestic biomass combustion

The aims of this task are:

  • To validate and evaluate the performances in terms of metrology of a common European method previously developed for the measurement of solid PM and OGC from residential biomass combustion appliances and boilers, and selected by the CEN TC 295 WG5 to be described as a technical specification. To that extend, an intercomparison dedicated to notified bodies performing type testing of residential appliances and boilers using solid fuels, will be organised using INERIS stack simulator.
  • To develop and validate sampling and analytical methods for the measurement of condensable PM and organics including SVOCs and PAHs from residential appliances and boilers and industrial plants using biomass.

Task 2.2: Development validated methods to distinguish the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from biomass burning using online spectroscopic techniques

The aim of this task is to develop validated methods to distinguish the isotopic composition of CO2 emissions from biomass burning using online spectroscopic techniques. The design of the proof of concept instrument will be based on an Optical Isotope Ratio Spectroscopy (OIRS) instrument, previously developed in Metrology for High Impact Greenhouse Gases (EMRP ENV52 HIGHGAS) project for laboratory-based isotope-selective measurements of CO2 isotopologues in an ambient air matrix. The measurement of the stable isotopologues of combustion-originated CO2 provides means for the identification and classification of the combusted fuels. A field-capable analyser for online stack emission monitoring will be developed with special attention given to matching OIRS to CO2 amount fraction, possible spectral interference from additional abundant species within the emission matrix, and potential filtering or other pre-treatment of the combustion gas matrix.

Task 2.3: Validation of novel hyperspectral techniques for simultaneous multispecies detection

The aim of this task is to investigate and validate the use of novel hyperspectral techniques for standoff detection and quantification of multispecies pollutant emissions (e.g., PM, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), methane, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene and other polyaromatic hydrocarbons) resulting from biomass combustion. For the detection, identification and quantification of various hazardous emitted pollutants in biomass combustion, hyperspectral imaging techniques can offer several advantages such as the capability to spectrally detect various gaseous pollutant components at a standoff and safer distance from the source of emission. Aside from this, the measurement can be done in real-time and covers a much larger area of the emission source. So far, for biomass combustion measurements, there is less available information reported on the validity and reliability of this technique. The activities in this task will include the 1) survey of the latest technologies related to hyperspectral detection, 2) development of calibration methods and set-ups, 3) preparation of reference gas mixtures for validation activities, 4) intercomparison of calibration methods, and 5) validation of detection performance.