25/11/22 In vitro respiratory toxicology: lung models, exposure methods and analytical techniques – the AeroTox Stakeholder workshop (from left to right) Dr Anna-Karin Larsson Callerfelt (Lund University), Dr Konstantina Vasilatou (Federal Institute of Metrology METAS) and Dr Michael Shaw (National Physical Laboratory & University College London) A successful stakeholder workshop was hosted by Lund University during the final month of the project. The In vitro respiratory toxicology: lung models, exposure methods and analytical techniques workshop brought together leading researchers who are applying in vitro toxicological techniques to investigate the effects of exposure to air pollution on human health. The workshop was held at the Pufendorf Institute, Lund University, Sweden and was also available online. Dr Anna-Karin Larsson Callerfelt (Lund University) and Dr Michael Shaw (National Physical Laboratory & University College London) welcomed all to the workshop. This was followed by the keynote speech Air Quality and Health: Insights from Toxicology by Prof. Terry Tetley (Imperial College London). Dr Anna Oudin (Lund University) presented on Air pollution and health in Sweden: Results from epidemiological studies and Dr Ian Mudway (Imperial College London) presented on the Overview of the EMPIR Aerotox project. Dr Konstantina Vasilatou (Federal Institute of Metrology METAS) presented on the Laboratory-based generation of particles simulating real ambient aerosols and Dr Anna-Karin Larsson Callerfelt illustrated and explained work on Lung models and exposure methods. Dr Michael Shaw presented work on Imaging techniques for in vitro respiratory toxicity studies and Prof. Marianne Geiser (University of Bern) on The role of secondary organic matter on soot particle toxicity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelia exposed at the air-liquid interface. Although not part of the consortium or the AeroTox project, Prof. Markus Kalberer (University of Basel) presented on the Comparison of online/offline deposition of organic and metal aerosol particles on lung cells as their work was of interest and in a similar field to the project. After the presentation, the consortium and stakeholders came together for the In vitro respiratory toxicology – challenges, opportunities & future studies discussion chaired by Dr Ian Mudway followed by the summary and concluding remarks from Dr Anna-Karin Larsson Callerfelt and Dr Michael Shaw. AeroTox at the International Aerosol Conference 2022 26/09/22 Partners came together to present on various aspects of the project at IAC 2022. Nilofar Faruqui of project partner NPL, presented as part of a special conference session focused on methods for quantification of the health effects of exposure to airborne particulates. Nilofar’s presentation described the results of a recent study conducted at NPL as part of the project in which different respiratory cell models were exposed to well characterised laboratory-generated aerosols to measure their cytotoxic effects. Alejandro Keller of project partner FHNW presented on The organic coating unit, an all-in-one system for reproducible generation of secondary organic aerosol and Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt of project partner Lund University presented on the Toxicity screening of airborne particles in cell and lung tissue cultures linked to adverse health effects. A poster by Camilla Dondi of NPL, Advances in high-resolution imaging of cell cultures and tissues exposed to airborne particles was also presented at the conference. The poster is available here and also from our Documents page. The project was represented during the Quantification of health risk from airborne particulate pollutants session. The quadrennial International Aerosol Conference was held in Athens from 4-9 September 2022. The event was the first major aerosol science conference since the Covid-19 pandemic and was attended by approximately 1,200 delegates in person, with around 200 further attendees joining online. A portable flow tube homogenizer for aerosol mixing in the sub-micrometre and lower micrometre particle size range 24/08/22 Project partner METAS have a new open access paper in Measurement Science and Technology. A portable flow tube homogenizer for aerosol mixing in the sub-micrometre and lower micrometre particle size range is available here and also from our Documents page. A portable and light-weight aerosol homogenizer has been designed and validated experimentally. The design relies on large-scale primary standards for particle number and mass concentration previously developed for metrology applications, but the dimensions have been scaled down to produce a versatile and user-friendly apparatus for everyday applications in aerosol sciences. The homogenizer is a 0.8 m long cylinder made of steel with an inner diameter of 50 mm, equipped with three inlets for primary aerosols and up to four outlets for sampling homogenized aerosol mixtures. Mixing is achieved by three turbulent air jets. The aerosol spatial homogeneity in the sampling zone was within ±1% and ±4% for 2 and 5 µm polystyrene (PS) particles, respectively. The possibility to supply and control independently aerosol flows with pressure-sensitive generators and the short equilibration time (<1 min) have also been demonstrated. The homogenizer allows for mixing various aerosol components, such as soot, inorganic species and mineral dust particles, to generate ambient-like aerosols in the laboratory or industrially manufactured particles such as PS spheres as model aerosols. We believe that it could have applications in applied aerosol research, health-related studies, and instrument calibration. The organic coating unit, an all-in-one system for reproducible generation of secondary organic matter aerosol 18/08/22 Project partners METAS and FHNW have collaborated on a new paper with the Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel. Published by Aerosol Science and Technology, The organic coating unit, an all-in-one system for reproducible generation of secondary organic matter aerosol is available here and also from our Documents page. We report on a novel automated oxidation flow reactor to generate a wide variety of organic aerosol samples. The instrument is equipped with a humidifier, a dosing system for volatile organic precursors and an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) for generation of secondary organic matter (SOM). The instrument, known as organic coating unit (OCU), can produce homogeneously nucleated SOM particles or, used in combination with a standard combustion generator (e.g., a diffusion flame soot generator or any other seed particle), particles coated with a controlled amount of SOM. The physical and chemical properties of the generated particles can be controlled in a simple manner by selecting through a touch-screen target values for parameters, such as organic gaseous precursor concentration, humidity, and UV (ultraviolet) light intensity. Parameters and measured quantities are automatically stored in text files for easy export and analysis. Furthermore, we provide stable operation conditions and characterize the physicochemical properties of the generated aerosols with an array of methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal-optical analysis and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This all-in-one instrument is robust, compact, portable, and user-friendly, making it ideal for laboratory or field-based aerosol studies. Uncovering Adverse Health Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants 12/05/22 Camilla Dondi of project partner NPL recently presented a poster on aspects of the AeroTox project. Uncovering Adverse Health Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants was shown at the Government Science & Engineering (GSE) Conference 2022 which took place at the Science Museum in London earlier this month. The poster can be found here (above) and also over on our Documents page. Comparing black-carbon- and aerosol-absorption-measuring instruments – a new system using lab-generated soot coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter 01/02/22 Project partners METAS, FMI and FHNW have collaborated on a new paper with the Center for Atmospheric Research at the University of Nova Gorica, Haze Instruments and the Department of Condensed Matter Physics at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Published by Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, Comparing black-carbon- and aerosol-absorption-measuring instruments – a new system using lab-generated soot coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter is available here and also from our Documents page. We report on an inter-comparison of black-carbon- and aerosol-absorption-measuring instruments with laboratory-generated soot particles coated with controlled amounts of secondary organic matter (SOM). The aerosol generation setup consisted of a miniCAST 5201 Type BC burner for the generation of soot particles and a new automated oxidation flow reactor based on the micro smog chamber (MSC) for the generation of SOM from the ozonolysis of α-pinene. A series of test aerosols was generated with elemental to total carbon (EC TC) mass fraction ranging from about 90 % down to 10 % and single-scattering albedo (SSA at 637 nm) from almost 0 to about 0.7. A dual-spot Aethalometer AE33, a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX, 870 nm), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), a prototype photoacoustic instrument, and two prototype photo-thermal interferometers (PTAAM-2λ and MSPTI) were exposed to the test aerosols in parallel. Significant deviations in the response of the instruments were observed depending on the amount of secondary organic coating. We believe that the setup and methodology described in this study can easily be standardised and provide a straightforward and reproducible procedure for the inter-comparison and characterisation of both filter-based and in situ black-carbon-measuring (BC-measuring) instruments based on realistic test aerosols. AeroTox Presentation at the Swiss Aerosol Group Conference 05/11/21 Konstantina Vasilatou of project partner METAS recently provided the following presentation The Organic Coating Unit, a system for reproducible generation of secondary organic matter aerosol at the 16th Meeting of the Swiss Aerosol Group which took place in Bern, Switzerland, on the 2nd of November 2021. Luminescence Encoding of Polymer Microbeads during Polymerization 20/08/21 Lena Scholtz of project partner BAM recently presented a poster on aspects of the AeroTox project. Luminescence Encoding of Polymer Microbeads during Polymerization was shown at the Bad Honnef Physics School 2021 which took place in Bad Honnef, Germany in July. Luminescent polymer microbeads are applied in bead-based platforms for biomolecule binding interactions, and the encoding of these beads is important for the realization of optically distinguishable barcodes. While dye encoded beads often suffer from photobleaching and spectral crosstalk due to the relatively broad dye emission band, quantum dot (QD)-encoded beads absorb in a very broad wavelength range and reveal narrow emission bands, which enables simultaneous excitation of beads stained with differently colored QDs. To address existing limitations of QD encoding, we have explored simple and effective approaches to homogeneously stain polymer particles and identify suitable polymerization reactions and QD surface ligands that tackle these challenges. The poster can be found here (above) and also over on our Documents page. Coated soot particles with tunable, well-controlled properties generated in the laboratory with a miniCAST BC and a micro smog chamber 18/06/21 Michaela N. Ess and Konstantina Vasilatou of project partner METAS working alongside colleagues from the Paul Scherrer Institute and the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland have produced a new paper; Coated soot particles with tunable, well-controlled properties generated in the laboratory with a miniCAST BC and a micro smog chamber. A Micro Smog Chamber (MSC) was coupled for the first time with a miniCAST 5201 Type BC combustion generator with the aim to produce a series of stable and reproducible model aerosols simulating the physical properties of combustion particles present in ambient air. With this setup it was possible to generate particles ranging from “fresh” soot (single scattering albedo SSA≤0.05, absorption Ångström exponent AAE close to 1, high EC/TC mass fraction (approximately 90%) and mobility diameter typically <100 nm) to “aged” soot with different amounts of organic coating. The “aged” soot particles could grow up to 200 nm and exhibited high SSA (up to 0.7 at λ = 870 nm), an increased AAE (up to 1.7) and low EC/TC mass fraction (down to <10%). The ageing was achieved by coating the soot particles with increasing amounts of secondary organic matter (SOM) formed by the photo-oxidation of α-pinene or mesitylene in the MSC. Thereby, the SSA and AAE increased with coating thickness, while the EC/TC mass fraction decreased. Over the experimental period of 2 h, the generation of the “aged” soot aerosols was stable with a standard deviation in particle size and number concentration of <1% and <6%, respectively. The day-to-day reproducibility was also satisfactory: with α-pinene as SOM precursor the variability (standard deviation) in particle size was <2% and in the AAE and SSA < 6%. Particle number concentrations up to 106 cm−3 and mass concentrations up to 15 mg/m3 (depending on particle size and SOM amount) could be generated, much higher than what has been reported with other oxidation flow reactors. The generated carbonaceous aerosols could find useful applications in the field of aerosol instrument calibration, particularly in the standardization of filter-based absorption photometers under controlled conditions. The article can be found above, in the Journal of Aerosol Science and also over on our Documents and Publications page. mmSIM: an open toolbox for accessible structured illumination microscopy 26/04/21 Craig Russell and Mike Shaw from project partner NPL have produced a new paper mmSIM: an open toolbox for accessible structured illumination microscopy. Since the first practical super-resolution structured illumination fluorescence microscopes (SIM) were demonstrated more than two decades ago, the method has become increasingly popular for a wide range of bioimaging applications. The high cost and relative inflexibility of commercial systems, coupled with the conceptual simplicity of the approach and the desire to exploit and customize existing hardware, have led to the development of a large number of home-built systems. Several detailed hardware designs are available in the scientific literature, complemented by open-source software tools for SIM image validation and reconstruction. However, there remains a lack of simple open-source software to control these systems and manage the synchronization between hardware components, which is critical for effective SIM imaging. This article describes a new suite of software tools based on the popular Micro-Manager package, which enable the keen microscopist to develop and run a SIM system. We use the software to control two custom-built, high-speed, spatial light modulator-based SIM systems, evaluating their performance by imaging a range of fluorescent samples. By simplifying the process of SIM hardware development, we aim to support wider adoption of the technique. A copy of the paper can be found here and at the The Royal Society. The paper is also available from our Documents page. Toxicological effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure: an in vitro comparison between dry aerosol air-liquid interface and submerged exposure systems 12/02/21 Karin Lovén and colleagues at project partner Lund University have produced a new paper Toxicological effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure: an in vitro comparison between dry aerosol air-liquid interface and submerged exposure systems. Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly produced and used today, but health risks due to their occupational airborne exposure are incompletely understood. Traditionally, nanoparticle (NP) toxicity is tested by introducing NPs to cells through suspension in the growth media, but this does not mimic respiratory exposures. Different methods to introduce aerosolized NPs to cells cultured at the air-liquid-interface (ALI) have been developed, but require specialized equipment and are associated with higher cost and time. Therefore, it is important to determine whether aerosolized setups induce different cellular responses to NPs than traditional ones, which could provide new insights into toxicological responses of NP exposure. This study evaluates the response of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) to zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs after dry aerosol exposure in the Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT) system as compared to conventional, suspension-based exposure: cells at ALI or submerged. Similar to other studies using nebulization of ZnO NPs, we found that dry aerosol exposure of ZnO NPs via the NACIVT system induced different cellular responses as compared to conventional methods. ZnO NPs delivered at 1.0 µg/cm2 in the NACIVT system, mimicking occupational exposure, induced significant increases in metabolic activity and release of the cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1, but no differences were observed using traditional exposures. While factors associated with the method of exposure, such as differing NP aggregation, may contribute toward the different cellular responses observed, our results further encourage the use of more physiologically realistic exposure systems for evaluating airborne ENM toxicity. A copy of the paper can be found here and at the Nanotoxicology site. The paper is also available from our Documents page. Decellularized lung scaffold repopulated with human fibroblast cells 13/01/21 http://empir.npl.co.uk/aerotox/wp-content/uploads/sites/53/2020/12/Aerotox-lung-final.mp4 Decellularized lung scaffold repopulated with human fibroblast cells prepared at the University of Lund and imaged at NPL using light sheet fluorescence microscopy. 350 µm thick tissue with 3mm diameter was refractive index matched and mounted for imaging. Human fibroblasts are visible as small brighter structures within the scaffold. Crosstalk between Mast Cells and Lung Fibroblasts Is Modified by Alveolar Extracellular Matrix and Influences Epithelial Migration 13/01/21 Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt and colleagues at project partner Lund University with colleagues from AstraZeneca and Sahlgrenska University Hospital have produced a new paper Crosstalk between Mast Cells and Lung Fibroblasts Is Modified by Alveolar Extracellular Matrix and Influences Epithelial Migration. Mast cells play an important role in asthma, however, the interactions between mast cells, fibroblasts and epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are less known. The objectives were to investigate the effect of mast cells on fibroblast activity and migration of epithelial cells. Lung fibroblasts from IPF patients and healthy individuals were co-cultured with LAD2 mast cells or stimulated with the proteases tryptase and chymase. Human lung fibroblasts and mast cells were cultured on cell culture plastic plates or decellularized human lung tissue (scaffolds) to create a more physiological milieu by providing an alveolar extracellular matrix. Released mediators were analyzed and evaluated for effects on epithelial cell migration. Tryptase increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release from fibroblasts, whereas co-culture with mast cells increased IL-6 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Culture in scaffolds increased the release of VEGF compared to culture on plastic. Migration of epithelial cells was reduced by IL-6, while HGF and conditioned media from scaffold cultures promoted migration. In conclusion, mast cells and tryptase increased fibroblast release of mediators that influenced epithelial migration. These data indicate a role of mast cells and tryptase in the interplay between fibroblasts, epithelial cells and the alveolar extracellular matrix in health and lung disease. A copy of the paper can be found here and at the International Journal of Molecular Sciences. The paper is also available from our Documents page. 1 Day Stakeholder Workshop on the use of biological test models for particle exposure 03/12/20 Originally scheduled for this November, the 1-day stakeholder workshop to be organized by LUND on the use of biological test models for particle exposure is now planned to take place Summer 2021. Further detail will become available soon. The workshop will address researchers within academia and industry. External speakers will be invited and preliminary results from the project will be presented. The workshop will also include interactions with the networks NanoSafety at Lund University, The National Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM) at Karolinska Institutet and SweTox, Sweden. Lab-based generation of reference soot aerosols 01/11/20 Konstantina Vasilatou of project partner METAS recently gave a presentation at MeteoSwiss on October 30 which was entitled Lab-based generation of reference soot aerosols. Silver Nanoparticles Alter Cell Viability Ex Vivo and in Vitro and Induce Proinflammatory Effects in Human Lung Fibroblasts in Nanomaterials 05/10/2020 Anna-Karin Larsson-Callerfelt and colleagues at project partner Lund University with colleagues from the Karolinska Institutet have produced a new paper Silver Nanoparticles Alter Cell Viability Ex Vivo and in Vitro and Induce Proinflammatory Effects in Human Lung Fibroblasts in Nanomaterials. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly used in commercial and medical applications. However, AgNPs may induce toxicity, extracellular matrix (ECM) changes and inflammatory responses. Fibroblasts are key players in remodeling processes and major producers of the ECM. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of AgNPs on cell viability, both ex vivo in murine precision cut lung slices (PCLS) and in vitro in human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), and immunomodulatory responses in fibroblasts. A copy of the paper can be found here and at Nanomaterials. The paper is also available from our Documents page. CFD simulation of an aerosol mixing chamber 01/09/20 Andrea Giordano of project partner METAS successfully defended his Masters Thesis CFD simulation of an aerosol mixing chamber at EPFL in August 2020. A copy of the paper can be found here and is also available from our Documents page. Andrea’s master’s thesis has received funding from the EMPIR programme within the project 18HLT02 AeroTox co-financed by the Participating States and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. AeroTox work acknowledged at DBFZ Technical Discussion 06/03/2020 Alejandro Keller of project partner FHNW recently presented at the ‘Staubmessverfahren an Kleinfeuerungsanlagen / Dust measurement methods on small combustion plants’ technical discussion, 4 February 2020 at DBFZ in Leipzig. Alejandro presented on a method for quantifying emissions for wood burning appliances including secondary organic material. A copy of Alejandro’s abstract can be found here. During the presentation, Alejandro acknowledged the development of the coating unit within the framework of the AeroTox project, which he uses as a conditioning system to estimate the potential production of the secondary organic material. A copy of Alejandro’s presentation can be found here which acknowledges the work of the AeroTox project and EMPIR. Towards the generation of synthetic ambient aerosols for instrument calibration and health studies (EMPIR AEROMET & EMPIR AeroTox) 06/02/2020 Konstantina Vasilatou of project partner METAS recently gave a dual EMPIR project presentation at the TC-Metrology in Chemistry (TC-MC) Annual Meeting, 5 February 2020 at METAS, Bern, Switzerland. As well as the AeroTox project, “Towards the generation of synthetic ambient aerosols for instrument calibration and health studies (EMPIR AEROMET & EMPIR AeroTox)” also illustrated work under the AEROMET project. The overall aim of the AEROMET project is to develop and demonstrate methods for traceability and calibration of different aerosol instruments capable of covering the environmentally relevant size range from several nm up to 10 μm and the regulatory relevant mass concentrations (0.1 μg/m³ to 1000 μg/m³) and number concentrations (102 to 106 particles per cm³). The traceability and calibration will consider the above metrics as well as mass concentration and chemistry of particle components. The project also aims to provide the necessary EU wide calibration infrastructure for aerosol instruments. The Technical Committee of Metrology in Chemistry (TC-MC) is a Joint EURAMET-Eurachem Technical Committee. It is concerned with primary methods and reference materials for chemical measurements and research in metrology to support different sectors in chemistry. A Successful M9 Meeting for AeroTox 31/01/2020 Clockwise from left: Konstantina Vasilatou, METAS; Mike Shaw, NPL (explaining video imaging of lung scaffolds); and Alejandro Keller, FHNW with Ian Mudway of KCL. A successful M9 meeting for the AeroTox project was held at King’s College London this month. The meeting also included a presentation followed by a Q&A with members of the AeroTox Stakeholder Committee. Project partners came together to illustrate the work they have progressed to M9 and the work taking the project forward to M18. Highlights included Konstantina Vasilatou of project partner METAS illustrating the work achieved so far under WP1 and Alejandro Keller of FHNW took us through the Micro Smog Chamber and noted an example study with α-Pinene. The lights were dimmed for the presentation from Mike Shaw of NPL as he provided video imaging of work progressed so far on lung scaffolds under WP3. AeroTox at Drug Discovery 2019 11/11/2019 James Noble of project partner NPL recently provided a presentation and a poster presentation at Drug Discovery 2019 which took place from 5-6 November in Liverpool, England. James’s presentation, Morphometric imaging of organoids for toxicology and assessment of therapeutic efficacy reached an audience of 120 delegates, whilst the poster edition of the presentation could be seen by over a thousand delegates. You can download the poster from the link above or visit our Documents page. Drug Discovery has become the largest meeting of life sciences industry professionals in the UK. This 2-day event brought together more than 1200 delegates and over 100 exhibiting companies from around the world who highlight the latest ground-breaking research, discuss cutting-edge advances in the application of laboratory technology to understand disease biology and to identify novel chemical and biological candidate drugs. AeroTox at the ELRIG Discovery Technologies 2019 conference 27/09/2019 Mike Shaw of project partner NPL gave an invited presentation at the ELRIG Discovery Technologies 2019 conference, 26 September at Alderley Park in the UK. Mike’s presentation Techniques for multiscale fluorescence imaging of 3D in vitro models included an acknowledgement of EMPIR and the AeroTox project. The ELRIG Discovery Technologies 2019 conference focused on novel and emerging technologies that are improving the efficiency and success rates in the drug discovery process. The three main themes of the conference were the application of imaging techniques in drug discovery and approaches and technologies used to address early safety assessment within the pharmaceutical industry and mechanistic enzymology in drug discovery. AeroTox at the European Aerosol Conference 2019 01/09/2019 Zaira Leni of project partner the University of Bern recently presented on the project at the European Aerosol Conference 2019 (https://eac2019.se/), held in Gothenburg, Sweden. Zaira presented on The role of fresh and aged soot particles in respiratory health impairment. The EAC conferences offer an exciting discussion forum for scientists from around the world working with basic aerosol research, development of aerosol techniques or applying one of its several techniques in a rich variety of scientific topics. The topics include nanotechnology, combustion aerosols, chemistry and physics of aerosols, medicine (inhalation, exposure and health), instrumentation, as well as indoor and ambient aerosols. The EAC2019 presented an opportunity to learn more about the latest in theoretical, experimental and applied aspects of aerosol science. AeroTox at the National Observatory of Athens 20/08/2019 Konstantina Vasilatou of project partner METAS presented recent advances of the AeroTox project at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), Greece on the 19 August. NOA is coordinating the H2020 project SMURBS. Researchers from NOA and the National Technical University of Athens will be visiting METAS this November to learn more about the generation of reference carbonaceous aerosols in the laboratory. AeroTox at Métrologie des Suies Workshop July 2019 Konstantina Vasilatou, of project partner METAS recently provided an oral presentation at the “Métrologie des suies” (Metrology of soot particles) workshop which took place at the institute INSTN in Saclay, Paris. Konstantina’s presentation, Generation and characterisation of model soot aerosols for instrument calibration and health effect studies was put together with Michaela Ess (METAS), Alejandro Keller (FHNW), Michele Bertò (Paul Scherrer Institut) and Martin Gysel-Beer (Paul Scherrer Institut). The INSTN, Institut national des sciences et techniques nucléaires (National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology) is a public higher education institution administered by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) under the joint authority of the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research, the Ministry of the Economy, Industry and the Digital Sector and the Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Marine Affairs. A Successful Kick Off Meeting for AeroTox June 2019 A successful Kick Off meeting for the AeroTox project was held at the ETH Zurich (Main Building), Rämistrasse 101, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland on the 20th – 21st June 2019. A meeting and discussion with the Stakeholders of the project also took place on the afternoon of the 20th. AeroTox at the ETH Conference on combustion-generated nanoparticles June 2019 Alejandro exhibiting the NACIVT (Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity) chamber at the ETH Conference Konstantina Vasilatou, Alejandro Keller and Zaira Leni recently presented on the project at the ETH Conference on combustion-generated nanoparticles, at ETH Zurich, 17th – 20th June 2019. Konstantina of project partner METAS (Swiss Federal Office of Metrology) gave a poster presentation “AeroToX: Measurements for mitigating adverse health effects from airborne particulate pollutants” Alejandro of project partner FHNW (The University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland) gave a poster presentation “The Synthetic Carbonaceous Atmospheric Aerosol (SCAA) generator: Towards the creation of an atmospheric aerosol standard”. Alejandro exhibited the NACIVT (Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity) chamber at the ETH Conference also. Zaira Leni of project partner Universität Bern provided an oral presentation “The Role of Laboratory-generated Soot Particles in Respiratory Health Impairment”. The ETH Conference on Combustion-Generated Nanoparticles serves as an interdisciplinary platform for expert discussions on all aspects of nanoparticles, freshly emitted from various sources, aged in ambient air, technical mitigation aspects, impact of particles on health, environment and climate and particle legislation. The conference brings together representatives from research, industry and legislation. You can find copies of the posters here and also over on our Documents page. AeroTox at the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment June 2019 Konstantina Vasilatou of project partner METAS recently gave an oral presentation “EMPIR AeroTox: an overview” to the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) on the 13th June, 2019. FOEN is the Swiss environmental agency and is responsible for matters of the environment, including the protection of plants and animals and the protection against noise, air pollution or natural hazards.